About heart rate variability

HRV describes the variations between consecutive inter-beat-intervals or IBIs. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are involved in the regulation of heart rate (HR).  Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity… Read more

HRV time series

For HRV analysis, inter-beat interval (IBI) data is required. Such data can be extracted from electrocardiogram (ECG) recording as time intervals between successive ECG R-waves, i.e. RR time intervals. Similarly IBI data can be extracted from photoplethysmography (PPG)… Read more

HRV preprocessing

Careful preprocessing of HRV data is very important before applying any HRV analysis methods. Any artefact in the RR interval time series may significantly interfere the analysis of these signals. The artefacts within HRV signals can be divided into… Read more

HRV analysis methods

In this section, the analysis methods available in Kubios HRV software are introduced. The presented methods are divided into four categories: 1) time-domain, 2) frequency-domain, 3) nonlinear, and 4) time-varying HRV analysis methods… Read more

PNS and SNS indexes

HRV reflects variations between consecutive inter-beat-intervals. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are involved in the regulation of heart rate. Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity is known to… Read more

ECG Waveform Analysis

Electrocardiography records the heart’s electrical activity. This process produces an electrocardiogram (ECG), which is a graph showing the heart’s electrical activity over time, captured via electrodes placed on the skin. A normal heart rhythm is characterized by four primary ECG waveforms…Read more

ANS Function Analysis

Heart rate variability (HRV) stands as one of the most reliable measures for assessing autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Standard tests for assessing autonomic nervous system function include the Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing (DB), and head-up tilt challenge (the Ewing tests)… Read more

Sport and Exercise Analysis

Sport and exercise analysis features providing detailed performance analytics and heart rate recovery for different types of training and exercise sessions are described here. These features are available in selected Kubios HRV software products…  Read more


See publications that describe certain functionalities of Kubios HRV software products or provide validation results for our pre-processing and analysis algorithms. If you are using Kubios HRV software products in scientific research, please cite these publications… Read more